These are mesmerizing!
These are mesmerizing!
i’d like to temper this by saying that i’m not a medical professional, or even the best person in my immediate peergroup to address this (nerds feel free to jump in here).
it would be “cool” if people were only able to doom themselves with their awful decisions, but in circumstances like this it doesn’t work like that. you’re right, yes, that vaccinating one’s child is a choice insofar as nobody is going to force you to get vaccinated. it’s a choice in the same way that any other objectively beneficial medical option is a choice— you’re allowed to not make that call, but nobody is going to congratulate you for doing so.
one of the issues here is that not getting vaccinated doesn’t just harm the unvaccinated person. not only do vaccines not have a 100% success rate, there are also plenty of people with completely legitimate medical reasons (like yourself) to not get vaccinated. ain’t nobody gonna get on your case for having a deadly allergy. maybe someone missed their booster shot or whatever. maybe you don’t have access to proper medical care, or can’t afford it. you’re probably gonna be safe, because:
luckily, because so many other people have gotten vaccinated around you, you’re protected by what’s called herd immunity. this is a really cool phenomenon, by which a large ratio of protected individuals are able to provide a larger protection to an entire community— effectively stopping the spread of a given disease by way of cutting off infection vectors. you’re insulated from the spread of a disease by a cushion of vaccinated people, none of whom can transmit the disease to you. you are effectively immune (even though you aren’t vaccinated), because the disease has no way of getting to you.
this starts to break down when higher and higher ratios of people are no longer vaccinated. the disease is able to spread across a group with greater ease, simply by virtue of having more infection options. this is why we see large outbreaks of eradicated diseases like in brooklyn or texas; because a statistically higher ratio of people in a given community are unvaccinated, the infection is able to spread farther than it ever should have been able to. i found this cool youtube which breaks down the “blocking” concept a little better than i might be explaining it:
another issue here is that the “choice” antivax parents are making is objectively, factually incorrect. vaccines work, they don’t cause autism or contain tons of dangerous chemicals, and they’re usually not a vehicle for the CIA to steal our DNA. we know because we have decades of rigorous scientific evidence backing us up— we are “scientifically correct” about vaccines, which is not a status that is given lightly. you gotta earn scientific correctness, over many years. as more parents start to think that it’s okay to not get their kids vaccinated, they start to undermine a very delicate system with potentially devastating consequences. (google translate from dutch, but the gist of it is that the netherlands is in the middle of a 2500+ person measles outbreak this year, largely spurred by a larger ratio of antivax/alternative care in a community. herd immunity, ya’ll.)
not getting your child vaccinated because a medical issue will cause them more harm than the vaccine itself would prevent is completely reasonable and acceptable. not getting your child vaccinated because you think medical science is a fake idea is not.
i am also not a medical professional so someone can correct me here but if i remember correctly, vaccination is also incredibly important to protect infants from deadly diseases they cannot get vaccinated for but CAN contract from someone who has not been vaccinated. Measles for instance will kill a baby stone dead, but you can’t vaccinate them for it until they’re older than 12 months. so the health and survival of infants vs. measles is directly dependant upon the vaccination status of the infant’s surroundings.
It is also spread through respiration (breathing on someone) and has a 90% transmission rate within regular contacted individuals, AND has a 12 day incubation period where you have no idea you contracted the disease but are still spreading it around. this is zombie outbreak level pandemic horror, and it used to kill people (mostly children) in the United States by the hundreds of thousands within living memory. measles fatality was nearly 800,000/year in the US circa 1960. fatality rate is 30% in an infected group!!!
and that’s just measles. thats not even polio or any of the other things we vaccinate for.
I can vouch for what ghostbong said. I’m not a medical doctor, so you can’t construe what I’m saying as specific medical advice for your case., but I am a virologist, so you can construe what I’m saying as informed scientific fact.
I can’t quite support what Eliza has said here, it’s…a bit off, so I hope you don’t mind the correction. The current vaccination schedule recommends given the Measles/Mumps/Rubella combined vaccination beginning at 6-12 months, mostly because before 6 months in most kids, vaccines are fairly ineffective. We’re still relying on maternal antibodies at that point; we get these in our blood from our mothers and from milk, to some degree.
So while it’s important to keep your children away from unvaccinated persons, it’s even more important to be certain that the mother is vaccinated against these diseases.
In fact, rubella is not much more harmful than the flu—the scariest danger in rubella is that if your mother has it while she’s pregnant with you, you’ll come out with birth defects. Pretty scary! So it’s super important that would-be moms get up to date, if they don’t want to put their kids at risk.
I think Eliza’s being a bit alarmist about the severity of measles virus infection, though. It is survivable with modern medicine, and after a lengthy hospital stay, an infected baby will probably be able to return to lead a normal life with minimal complications. I say that hoping readers catch my full irony. Vaccinated babies don’t have those risks.
More importantly, in a small percentage of patients who have measles as children, you get a violent, 2-week encephalitis called SSPE around age 30 and ultimately die. It’s sudden, it’s caused by reemergence of a latent measles infection, and it’s a painful, brutal way to day. Your brain swells, you lose your mind, and then you die. Not sure if it’s 100% fatal, but it’s 100% awful. Now that’s zombie-apocalypse type stuff right there.
She is, however, correct that measles spreads like wildfire. It’s an unbelievable virus in how it transmits, and the statistics Eliza cited are correct, but they blunt the nutso-cracked-out-transmission of MeV.
In epidemiology they have this concept called “r-naught,” which is basically the coefficient of the number of people one infected person will infect. In the movie Contagion it’s talked about in detail—great movie, check it out.
For flu, this spread coefficient is 1. One infected person makes an average of one other person sick. Remember how the 2009 flu pandemic went global in a month? That’s what an r-naught of one looks like.
Measles virus has an r-naught of fifteen. If you’re unvaccinated, you can catch measles just from being within 100 feet of someone who has the virus. You might never even touch them.
This is some scary stuff, ladies and gentlemen.
important update from an irl virologist. sorry about the bad facts john, i was working from wikipedia instead of actual current research etc
Jesus fucking christ
It’s officially December, so have a fungal Christmas tree. Top: Talaromyces stipitatus; Tree: Aspergillus nidulans; Ornaments: Penicillium marneffei; Trunk: Aspergillus terreus.
The scientists have the holiday.
a decellularized “ghost” heart
aaaaaaaay extracellular matrix
How cool is it that when you take all the cells out of an organ it still looks like an organ?
I remember when I was in high school and still very confused about how tissues worked, because all anyone taught me was that we’re made up of piles of cells hung on bones. But that’s not how it is! Cells build themselves little hammocks of polymer and densely branched glycoproteins; we’re like onions, layers of membrane over tough rubbery collagen, huge protein scaffolds cradling slippery organs.
Bodies are not made of cells — bodies are made by cells.
During the Bubonic Plague, doctors wore these bird-like masks to avoid becoming sick. They would fill the beaks with spices and rose petals, so they wouldn’t have to smell the rotting bodies.
A theory during the Bubonic Plague was that the plague was caused by evil spirits. To scare the spirits away, the masks were intentionally designed to be creepy.
Mission fucking accomplished
Okay so I love this but it doesn’t cover the half of why the design is awesome and actually borders on making sense.
It wasn’t just that they didn’t want to smell the infected and dead, they thought it was crucial to protecting themselves. They had no way of knowing about what actually caused the plague, and so one of the other theories was that the smell of the infected all by itself was evil and could transmit the plague. So not only would they fill their masks with aromatic herbs and flowers, they would also burn fires in public areas, so that the smell of the smoke would “clear the air”. This all related to the miasma theory of contagion, which was one of the major theories out there until the 19th century. And it makes sense, in a way. Plague victims smelled awful, and there’s a general correlation between horrible septic smells and getting horribly sick if you’re around what causes them for too long.
You can see now that we’ve got two different theories as to what caused the plague that were worked into the design. That’s because the whole thing was an attempt by the doctors to cover as many bases as they could think of, and we’re still not done.
The glass eyepieces. They were either darkened or red, not something you generally want to have to contend with when examining patients. But the plague might be spread by eye contact via the evil eye, so best to ward that off too.
The illustration shows a doctor holding a stick. This was an examination tool, that helped the doctors keep some distance between themselves and the infected. They already had gloves on, but the extra level of separation was apparently deemed necessary. You could even take a pulse with it. Or keep people the fuck away from you, which was apparently a documented use.
Finally, the robe. It’s not just to look fancy, the cloth was waxed, as were all of the rest of their clothes. What’s one of the properties of wax? Water-based fluids aren’t absorbed by it. This was the closest you could get to a sterile, fully protecting garment back then. Because at least one person along the line was smart enough to think “Gee, I’d really rather not have the stuff coming out of those weeping sores anywhere on my person”.
So between all of these there’s a real sense that a lot of real thought was put into making sure the doctors were protected, even if they couldn’t exactly be sure from what. They worked with what information they had. And frankly, it’s a great design given what was available! You limit exposure to aspirated liquids, limit exposure to contaminated liquids already present, you limit contact with the infected. You also don’t give fleas any really good place to hop onto. That’s actually useful.
Beyond that, there were contracts the doctors would sign before they even got near a patient. They were to be under quarantine themselves, they wouldn’t treat patients without a custodian monitoring them and helping when something had to be physically contacted, and they would not treat non-plague patients for the duration. There was an actual system in place by the time the plague doctors really became a thing to make sure they didn’t infect anyone either.
These guys were the product of the scientific process at work, and the scientific process made a bitchin’ proto-hazmat suit. And containment protocols!
Oh Chemistree, oh chemistree,
How lovely are your beakers.
You wish your chem lab was as cool as mine.
This is the most cyberpunk thing I have ever seen.
I am just sitting on my bed shrieking in delight ARE YOU GUYS SEEING THIS
I want this in my life.
EXCUSE ME I KNOW THIS IS NOT RECIPES BUT DO YOU UNDERSTAND HOW MINDBLOWINGLY AMAZING THIS IS????!?!?
FUCKING TAKE MY MONEY YOU BRILLIANT INDIVIDUALS!
IS THIS CONDUCTIVE INK IM GOING TO SCREAM
Magnetic putty engulfs piece of metal.
Inflating a set of cat lungs
Lungs are by most accounts mundane. Everybody has them, few give it much thought. But sequestered within darkness of the chest cavity, enveloping the fluttering heart, there’s a incredible wonder to this oddly inflatable organ.
Dissection is a destructive process. Rudely excised from membranous mooring and nourishing vessels, the deflated lungs appear little more than bloodied meat; amorphous and exposed…….until a breath of air unfurls its secret glory.
Here, a set of cat lungs is inflated with a straw. Comprised of hundreds of millions of microscopic air sacks called aveoli, Mammalian lungs harbor air capacity that is difficult to believe unless seen. The color of the entire organ lightens into a soft pink, as each microscopic sac fills with air.
A debt of gratitude is owed to cyborgraptor for her assistance in creating these gifs, as well as the students that help me film this demo.